Rajasthan, a state in North-West India, boasts a long and proud history. By land mass it is the largest state in India, and contains an international border with Pakistan. A state with diverse geographical terrain, Rajasthan boasts as one of the most inhospitable places on the planet in the Thar Desert. Popular places to visit include Jaipur, Udaipur and Ajmer.

Rajasthan has a population of approximately seven crores, with almost a crore represented in marginalised language communities. The literacy rate among these communities stands at 53%, with a disparity of 30% between the sexes, with males more likely to be literate.

Rajasthan is rich in natural resources, with significant reserves of crude oil and limestone. This number is set to increase as these resources are developed. However, the majority of Rajasthani's engage in agricultural and pastoral activities, with barley, wheat, oil and pulses being the majority of their crop. 

As home to a number of ethnic tribes and communities, that speak their own distinct language, Nirmaan undertakes extensive work amongst ten such communities.


The Shekawati people number around 69 lakh and are typically found in the north-eastern part of Rajasthan. A historically wealthy region, its people are considered brave, self-sacrificing and hard-working. With over 15,000 schools, 400 colleges and 6 universities in the region, the overall literacy rate stands at 75%. Although the Shekawati enjoy indigenous language status, their education is primarily conducted in Hindi and English. The language is important from a grammatical and literary point of view. 

Although many Shekawati find jobs outside their communities in affluent positions, the majority still engage in traditional forms of employment, such as farming and animal husbandry. Here, both traditional and modern methods are used, with significant financial help from government and private entities. 

Nirmaan undertakes the language development project among the Shekawati community.

Map of Shekawati Speaking Region
An Old Man Spinning Cotton
Rawal Sab ki Haveli (Heritage)
Woman Making Chapati Over Firewood
Ploughing a field with a camel
A Potter at Work
Wheat Field
Woman cleaning Green Gram/Mung Bean
A Mason at Work
Nirmaan Staff Surveying a Villange


The Dhundari people number approximately 30 lakh, and are typically found in the north-eastern part of Rajasthan. Some argue that the Dhundari name is said to be derived from the Dhundh or Dhundhakriti mountain, which is located in Jaipur district. Others postulate that the name is derived from the Dhundh river that flows through this region. 

With over 3500 schools, a 1000 colleges and 100 universities, the Dhundari boast a reasonably high literacy rate,the overall Literacy rate stands at 60%. Although most of the Dhundari are most familiar with their own language, almost all teaching is undertaken in Hindi. In addition, no systematic language development has been carried out in this language. 

Although most Dhundari work in the agricultural sector, very few are able to glean a profit from the same, perhaps as a result of their continued reliance on outdated agricultural methods. In addition, they are seldom able to secure viable means of finance to aid them in their agricultural ventures. The other major source of income is from labor work secured at Jaipur.

Nirmaan is involved in developing the language through various activities like conducting literacy classes and creating language dictionary.

Map of Dhundari Speaking Region
A woman reading a Dhundari book
Mason at Work
Language Community Meeting
Woman Milking a Buffalo
Women Harvesting Corn
Fetching Water from the Well
Farmers rebuilding the farm boundary
Customary bathing of the bridegroom
Farmer Ploughing the field with cows
A Farmer carrying dry fodder


The Mewari are a large people group numbering over 90 lakh, typically found in the southern part of the state. With over 15,000 schools, 150 colleges and 49 universities in the region, the overall Literacy rate stands at 38%. A reason for this low rate could be because,Despite the huge population, and the high status of the Mewari language, most eduction is undertaken in Hindi.

Mewari also engage in agriculture by employing methods incorporate some modern elements with more traditional methods. They are also able to secure funding to aid in their agriculture, while simultaneously making a profit. In addition to agriculture, other Mewari engage in animal husbandry and herding to provide for themselves. 

Nirmaan undertakes the language development project among the Mewarians.

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A street seller during festival season.JPG
A traditional drummer.JPG
A wedding ceremony.JPG


The Od Rajput, alternatively spelt as Aud Rajput, people number roughly sixty thousand, and are typically found in central Rajasthan, although they are largely isolated. A number of their counterparts live in modern-day Pakistan and other parts of North-India. With 450 schools, 10 colleges and one university,the overall Literacy stands at 25%. Although they typically speak their indigenous language, the education afforded to them is undertaken in Hindi, resulting in this low rate.

Although the Od Rajputs typically made their profits off the land, very little form of financial aid is available to them. This, in tandem with the employment of outdated farming methods, means that they make very little profit from their agricultural endeavours. Other forms of income include daily wages from labor jobs, typically found in other districts. 

Nirmaan undertakes the development of language through conduct literacy classes and dictionary development.

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The Mewati are a large people group, numbering over 72 lakh, and are found in the north-eastern portion of Rajasthan, with some speakers found in Haryana. With over 3700 schools and 500 colleges, the Literacy rate stands at 25%. Because of the importance of the Mewati language, and the prominence of Hindi, education is typically undertaken in Mewati, but education material is only available in Hindi and English.

The Mewati employ modern and traditional methods when cultivating the land, and have many facilities to help them in this endeavour. The most prominent of these is the Kissan Credit Card Bank, which gives them a means through which to secure financial aid, while simultaneously turning a profit. Other prominent forms of income include daily wage jobs and personal businesses. 


Nirmaan is engaged in the language development.



The Bagri people number over 31 lakh, and are typically found in the north-western region of Rajasthan. The Bagri language forms a linguistic bridge between Rajasthani, Haryanvi Hindi and Punjabi. With 400 schools and 35 colleges,the overall Literacy rate stands at 73.5%. Apart from Bagri, Hindi and Punjabi are commonly spoken. Education is typically carried out in either Hindi or English. 

The Bagri also actively cultivate the land, employing both modern and traditional techniques. They are able to source funding from banks and cooperative institutions, and typically make a profit from their harvest. Other sources of income include daily wage jobs, private business and in providing basic services.


Language development through literacy and dictionary development is progressing.




The Marwari people number approximately 5 lakh, and are found in the Yamuna-Ganga basin, Nepal and Rajasthan. A historically migratory group, the largest community of Marwari are found in the south-western region of Rajasthan, in the formally princely state of Marwar. With 40 schools, one college and one university in the region, the overall Literacy rate stands at 51.88%. Despite the historical prominence of the Marwari, and their indigenous language, education is carried out in Hindi or English.

Historically making their living as traders, the Marwari continue their age old traditions. However, other Marwari engage in agriculture by employing traditional and modern methods. Others find work as daily labourers, while still others work as miners. 

Nirmaan undertakes the language development project.



The Hadothi number about 56 lakh, and are typically found in south-western Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. With 125 schools and one college for this large population the literacy rate stands at 75%. Besides Hadothi, the people here also speak Hindi. Instruction in educational institutions are undertaken in Hindi, Hadothi and but education material is only available in Hindi

Typically making their income off the land, the Hadothi are actively engaged in animal husbandry and agriculture. They employ traditional methods of cultivation, while allowing some modern practices to inform their decisions. They are able to procure financial assistance from the KCC and other cooperative banks, aiding them in turning a profit. 

Language development through literacy and dictionary development is progressing.



The Braj Basha number about 63 lakh, and its people are spread across south-eastern Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. A people group of historical import, the Braj Basha has had significant language development, even though it is a rural tongue. With over 4700 schools, 200 colleges and 5 universities,the Literacy rate stands at 50%. The importance of the language means that Braj is the medium of communication but the education materials are only available in Hindi.

The Braj Basha are dependent of farming for their income. Very little industry exists within their communities, and people seek to make ends meet by tilling the land. Traditional methods are commonly used to farm, and farmers seek loans for financial assistance. 

Nirmaan undertakes the language development and dicitonary project.

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The Wagri number approximately 53 lakh, and are found in the southern part of Rajasthan. With over 2000 schools, 50 colleges and 6 universities in the region,they have a high literacy rate. Most Wagri are also fluent in Hindi. Education is typically carried out in  Wagri but education materials are only available in Hindi

The Wagri are highly dependent on agriculture for their sustenance, and employ traditional cultivation methods. Unlike many other communities, they are unable to make a profit from their crops as they use the same to feed their communities. Three factories in the vicinity provides jobs to a few Wagri, but apart from this there is very little opportunity for employment.

Language development through literacy and dictionary development is progressing.


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